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Harvest eggplants: Choose the best looking eggplants to use for seed. Use fruits from multiple plants to maintain some genetic diversity in your seeds. Leave these eggplants on the plants well past the normal eating stage before harvesting for seed. The eggplants will become translucent and dry (whitish, yellowish, or brownish). Note: In order to avoid rotten eggplants, keep the eggplants off the ground as they ripen. Harvest and store inside for about a week, or until eggplants go soft.
Extracting seeds: Peel outer skin of eggplant and slice the seed-filled flesh into thin pieces. Allow to soak until the seeds separate from the pulp. Leaving the soaking flesh overnight makes this separation easier.
Identify good seeds: After seeds and pulp are separated, place seeds in a bowl of water. Good seeds will sink to the bottom, while bad seeds will float. Discard floating seeds.
Dry seeds: Drain seeds in a strainer to get rid of excess moisture, pat the bottom of the strainer with a towel to pull additional moisture. Then place the seeds on a mesh screen or ceramic/glass plate to dry. Allow to dry in a cool and dry location for at least 3 days.
Label and Store: Store in a sealed container. Properly stored eggplant seeds can remain viable for 2-3 years.
Eggplant requires a long and warm growing season to thrive. According to the Kohala Center, a day temperature of 77-89 degrees F and night temperatures of 70-80 degrees F are ideal for eggplant seed production.
Eggplant produces self-pollinating flowers, and although it can cross pollinate, this is very rare. However, to avoid unwanted cross-pollination and preserve seed integrity, separate each variety by about 20 meters, or plant a tall barrier crop between varieties. Flowers can also be bagged to avoid pollination by insects.
Sources: http://www.fedcoseeds.com/seeds/seed_saving.htm ; http://howtosaveseeds.com/seedsavingdetails.php#chinesemustard ; Kohala Center
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